A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
Mechanicalanalog computers started appearing in the first century and were later used in the medieval era for astronomical calculations. In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications such as calculating torpedo aiming. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).
The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations, before electronic computers became commercially available.
"The human computer is supposed to be following fixed rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail." (Turing, 1950)
Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that this could be done in parallel.
The first time the term "Computer" appeared in The New York Times was February 3, 1853; an obituary stated:
Since the end of the 20th century, the term "human computer" has also been applied to individuals with prodigious powers of mental arithmetic, also known as mental calculators.
Offshore (1979) is a novel by Penelope Fitzgerald. It won the Booker Prize for that year. It recalls her time spent on boats on the Thames in Battersea. The novel explores the liminality of people who do not belong to the land or the sea, but are somewhere in between. The epigraph, "che mena il vento, e che batte la pioggia, e che s'incontran con si aspre lingue" ("whom the wind drives, or whom the rain beats, or those who clash with such bitter tongues") comes from Canto XI of Dante's Inferno.
"Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field. There are various types of platform used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields, and subsea facilities.
Stephanie Gibaud in June, 2008, was ordered by one of her managers at the UBS Bank in Paris to destroy all her computer files that related to customers with offshore accounts in Switzerland... Her documents would eventually help to identify 38,000 offshore bank accounts amounting to $12 billion ... Cahuzac had an offshore account with UBS in Geneva.
There are about half a million open computer and mathematics jobs in the United States right now, and the unemployment rate for these jobs is at 2 percent.46 McKinsey estimates that chip manufacturers will be short 390,000 engineers and skilled technicians by 2030, leading to more production being set up offshore.
The government has directed all public agencies not to upgrade their own IT storage systems, but to shift their masses of public data to off-site cloud computing processors - the largest of which are run by Amazon, Microsoft and Google, at this stage all offshore.
Respondents said around 50% of semiconductor supply was still not considered fully secure, with full-stack computing platforms and microcontrollers the hardest to obtain. The proportion of supply which companies obtained from offshore locations fell by over a fifth in the past two ...
Saudi Arabia has launched four new Special Economic Zones (SEZs) focused on key growth sectors, including advanced manufacturing, cloud computing and medical technology, offering opportunities to capitalise on one of the world’s fastest-growing economies ...Cloud Computing SEZ.
A launchpad on the Arabian Gulf for leaders in the maritime industry, Ras Al-KhairSEZ is a fully integrated marine ecosystem, with a rich network of existing investors – 40% of the zone is already reserved – and myriad opportunities across shipbuilding and repair, offshore drilling and maritime value chains.
On the other hand, UDCs make it easier to support computing needs from other marine industries, including offshore oil and gas drilling, marine ranching and marine tourism, helping build a smart marine industry cluster, save on comprehensive costs and eventually promote a more ...
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